Decentralized Persistence: From Blockchain and IPFS to DWNs

Volodymyr Pavlyshyn
3 min readNov 12, 2023

The Evolution of Internet Persistence

Since its inception, the internet has been a stateless entity, relying on servers for the persistence of data. This design has enabled a plethora of functionalities, but it also brought challenges, especially when it comes to persistent storage. Initially, solutions were predominantly centralized, with servers being the primary data repositories. However, this approach had limitations in terms of flexibility and reliability.

The Advent of Blockchain and Bitcoin

Blockchain technology, particularly with the advent of Bitcoin, introduced a decentralized approach to transactional data persistence. Bitcoin’s blockchain offered a global state synchronized across the network, but it was highly specialized for transactions. Ethereum and smart contracts expanded this concept, allowing for the storage of a wider range of data. However, this storage was costly and inefficient, and raised privacy concerns due to the public nature of blockchain data.

IPFS and the Challenge of Large Data Storage

IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) addressed the need for decentralized storage of large data sets outside the blockchain. It was a significant step forward, offering a more efficient and cost-effective solution compared to blockchain storage. IPFS’s content-addressable storage model made it a powerful tool for decentralized applications (DApps), including NFTs. However, IPFS struggled with privacy issues and lacked incentives for data persistence, making long-term storage reliability uncertain.

Filecoin: Incentivizing Data Storage

Filecoin attempted to solve the incentive problem in decentralized storage by introducing economic rewards for data storage. Users pay for storage, and the network ensures data persistence through a proof-of-storage mechanism. This model addresses the motivation to store data but still leaves questions about privacy and data control.

Ceramic Network: Adding a Permission Layer

Ceramic Network built upon the foundations of IPFS by adding a permission layer, allowing for more controlled data sharing and enhanced privacy. This development addressed the trust and privacy concerns inherent in previous systems, though reliance on network providers remained a factor.

Dfinity: Shifting the Cost of Storage

Dfinity introduced a different approach, shifting the storage cost from users to applications. It allowed for full data encryption within its network, addressing privacy concerns. Dfinity’s model, which involves clusters of machines, offers a more affordable and flexible storage solution than traditional blockchain storage. One more exciting shift is the subnetworks consensus.

Decentralized Web Nodes (DWN)

DWN took a unique path in decentralized storage, offering a relay-based topology with permissions, encryption, and synchronization capabilities. This approach particularly benefits DApps and AI agents requiring extensive data storage. DWNs balance local and networked data storage, providing privacy, efficiency, and scalability. DWNs is gived up on global consensus and state.

  • DWN offers a permission layer out of the box. User has control and complete control of access rights.
  • DWN is network agnostic, so you don't need to trust any network or organization that stays behind a network or protocol
  • DWN is transport agnostic and could be used in heterogeneous setup
  • DWN has a self-hosting and embeddable setup, so your decentralized app could start with zero cost
  • DWN still has incentives challenge, and it is one of topics that should be solved by the community and TBD folks. I belive that it will be a network of hosted DWNs in the future
  • Most importantly, DWN as a protocol-based solution open to extension and, on top of itself, allows to build of flexible and secured data protocols that unlock user data and made them interoperable

The Future of Decentralized Persistence

The future of decentralized persistence lies in architectures that balance local and networked data storage. Local-first approaches enable fast and efficient applications, while networked solutions provide broader access and collaboration opportunities. Technologies like DWNs represent a promising direction for decentralized apps, offering a new level of digital sovereignty and privacy.


The journey from centralized servers to decentralized persistence mechanisms like blockchain, IPFS, Filecoin, Ceramic Network, Dfinity, and DWNs highlights the evolving nature of internet architecture. Each step forward addresses specific challenges of the previous systems, moving towards a more secure, efficient, and user-centric internet. As these technologies continue to develop, they pave the way for a new digital sovereignty and privacy era.



Volodymyr Pavlyshyn

I believe in SSI, web5 web3 and democratized open data.I make all magic happens! dream & make ideas real, read poetry, write code, cook, do mate, and love.